Mineral Exploration is an essential part of the mining cycle. Nevertheless, in tough times (such as now), exploration budgets are the first to be cut, and so there is a healthy level of discussion permeating mining circles now on who is doing (or not doing) what. This is against a backdrop of declining exploration discoveries, usually blamed on maturity of whatever region has been explored. Surficial prospecting efforts have almost certainly found what sticks out of the ground, however, even in Australia which has a long exploration history, there is abundant unexplored territory usually less than 100m beneath the surface. The companies best prepared to be victors in the hunt for new buried riches are mid-tier miners, a space in the market experiencing a resurgence in Australia recently.