Assessing management is one of the more difficult tasks investors face. In recent years, research has identified three quantifiable factors that influence company performance: CEO remuneration, gender equality at a board/executive level, and family/founder ownership. Global index provider MSCI recently released a report stating that “companies with lower total summary CEO pay levels, more consistently displayed higher long-term investment returns.” MSCI also stated last year that “companies in the MSCI World Index with strong female leadership generated a ROE of 10.1% per year, versus 7.4% for those without.” Research from Pitcairn Financial Group, a leading US-based family office, then demonstrated that “family-owned firms within the S&P 500 index annually returned ~135 basis points more than the broad market over a 20-year period.” Read on for a deeper understanding of what’s driving each of these observations.